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Drink: A Cultural History Of Alcohol \/\/TOP\\\\

Alcoholic beverages have been used by virtually all cultures through most of their recorded history. When practices such as these appear to have a near-universal quality, despite the fact that in some cases they may have some apparently negative consequences, we are obliged to consider their potential for positive, culturally adaptive mechanisms. We take the view, quite uncontroversially, that it is unreasonable to suppose that such practices could have survived in such a dominant, pan-historical and pan-cultural manner if they were wholly maladaptive.

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol

These, and other, accounts from archeologists and scholars of ancient history are fascinating in themselves and give insights into the role of alcohol and drinking traditions which are familiar to us in twentieth century societies. More importantly, however, they also raise issues to do with the original purpose of grain-growing itself among the Neolithic predecessors of the Sumerians. Was grain grown primarily for making bread, with beer being simply a by-product, or was the production of an alcoholic beverage the main driving force behind this major shift towards stable agriculture, and hence, to the development of what we take to be civilization? If it was, indeed, the production of beer that shaped this dramatic shift, or even if it rapidly became an additional, powerful motive, we can begin to understand why the consumption of alcohol, in clearly defined social contexts, quickly became so deeply entrenched not only in cultures of what is now the Near East, but almost everywhere else in the world as well.

The Katz and Voigt thesis (developed later by Katz and Maytag, 1991) is, of course, an extreme one which is supported mainly by speculation and inferences drawn from sometimes ambiguous archeological finds. Whatever the merits of their line of argument, however, it is clear that even if grains were grown primarily for making gruel, and later for bread, fermentations occurred which established beer drinking as one of the earliest cultural behaviours. The alcoholic brews, whether the result of intention or accident, were not poured away. They were drunk because, we must assume, they were enjoyable. It is also clear that even if the nutritional benefits of the early beers have been overstated, they clearly did not constitute a bio-cultural disadvantage. The suggestion that the true motive for early beer drinking was the achievement of mild intoxication rather than the satisfaction of hunger is also persuasive. Seeking after altered states of consciousness is one of the few genuinely universal features of the human condition. As Rudgley (1994) notes:

Patrick (Dr. Pat) McGovern, the Indiana Jones of ancient alcoholic beverages, takes the reader on a roller coaster ride through the nine extreme brewed beverages of history. On these journeys, McGovern is at once an archaeologist, a chemist, and a homebrewer. His book is an amazing compilation of the mechanics of brewing both ancient and modern, and a wonderful comment on the human propensity for drinking and enjoying fermented and brewed beverages. It includes some recipes and food pairings for the ancient brews it describes. This book is a must-have for any beer aficionado, brewer, homebrewer, or even your everyday barstool cowboy.

This sequel to the highly-praised Bad Catholic's Guide to Good Living allows you to view Catholic life from a unique perspective. Starting with the wines, beers, and liquors made around the world by monks, the authors explore everything from Irish history to the secrets of the Knights Templar, with drinking games, food, and cocktail recipes, and rollicking drinking songs.ExploreBooks like The Bad Catholic's Guide to Wine, Whiskey, & SongBook lists with this bookWhy do people like this book?TopicsCocktailsThe history of alcoholic drinksThe Catholic ChurchGenresComing soon!PreviewBookshop.orgAmazonThe Oxford Companion to Spirits and CocktailsByDave Wondrich, Noah Rothbaum (editor),

This book examines how the profound religious, political, and intellectual shifts that characterize the early modern period in Europe are inextricably linked to cultural uses of alcohol in Europe and the Atlantic world. Combining recent work on the history of drink with innovative new research, the eight contributing scholars explore themes such as identity, consumerism, gender, politics, colonialism, religion, state-building, and more through the revealing lens of the pervasive drinking cultures of early modern peoples. Alcohol had a place at nearly every European table and a role in much of early modern experience, from building personal bonds via social and ritual drinking to fueling economies at both micro and macro levels. At the same time, drinking was also at the root of a host of personal tragedies, including domestic violence in the home and human trafficking across the Atlantic. Alcohol in the Early Modern World provides a fascinating re-examination of pre-modern beliefs about and experiences with intoxicating beverages.

Given these trends, it is clear that a better understanding of the underlying social and cultural factors contributing to these disparities is needed. For example, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (i.e., education, income, and occupation) usually are strong predictors of health behaviors and outcomes and tend to be positively associated with health. People with higher SES tend to drink more frequently than others (Huckle et al. 2010). Among drinkers, low-SES groups tend to drink larger quantities of alcohol (Huckle et al. 2010).

Like other health issues, alcohol use can be linked to a complex array of factors ranging from individual-level (i.e., genetics) to population-level (i.e., cultural and societal factors) characteristics (Berkman et al. 2000; Krieger 2001; Link and Phelan 1995). On a population level, emerging research has documented the relationship between social determinants and health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000; Berkman et al. 2000) and, specifically, the social epidemiology of alcohol use (Bernstein et al. 2007; Galea et al. 2004). Social capital theory suggests that social networks and connections influence health (Berkman et al. 2000). Individuals who have higher levels of social support and community cohesion generally are thought to be healthier because they have better links to basic health information, better access to health services, and greater financial support with medical costs. (Berkman and Kawachi 2000).

Studies are beginning to recognize the importance of premigration factors, including levels of alcohol use before migration as well as the cultural influences of countries of origin (Sanchez et al. 2014; Walsh et al. 2014). One study (Sanchez et al. 2014) among Latinos found that Latino men had higher levels of alcohol use before immigration, with steeper declines postmigration compared with Latino women. This finding suggests that future studies may need to focus on trajectories of alcohol use to address alcohol prevention efforts. Moreover, retaining culture of origin also has been shown to have protective influences for alcohol use (Schwartz et al. 2012), including protective family and traditional values.

Risk and protective factors, prosocial peer affiliations, and synergistic relationships between social contexts are worth further research. Among immigrants, retaining the cultural values of the country of origin has shown to have protective influences on alcohol use, and this finding should be incorporated into future interventions for immigrant populations. Focusing on risk and protective factors will help inform future programs addressing alcohol initiation, specifically helping parents and communities understand how they may influence alcohol use among adolescents and young adults.

In traditional Hispanic culture, women typically do not drink alcohol outside of small family gatherings or other private settings. For Hispanics in the United States, though, this cultural norm is changing. Recent evidence shows some young Hispanic women are drinking as much or even more than young Hispanic men.

While plenty of entertaining books have been written about the history of alcohol and other intoxicants, none have offered a comprehensive, convincing answer to the basic question of why humans want to get high in the first place. Drunk elegantly cuts through the tangle of urban legends and anecdotal impressions that surround our notions of intoxication to provide the first rigorous, scientifically grounded explanation for our love of alcohol.

From the earliest days of civilization, alcohol has been at the center of social rituals and cultures worldwide. But when exactly did drinking become a gendered act? And why have bars long been considered "places for men" when, without women, they might not even exist? With whip-smart insight and boundless curiosity, Girly Drinks unveils an entire untold history of the female distillers, drinkers and brewers who have played a vital role in the creation and consumption of alcohol, from ancient Sumerian beer goddess Ninkasi to iconic 1920s bartender Ada Coleman.

Alcohol is a fundamental part of Western culture. We have been drinking as long as we have been human, and for better or worse, alcohol has shaped our civilization. Drink investigates the history of this Jekyll and Hyde of fluids, tracing mankind's love/hate relationship with alcohol from ancient Egypt to the present day.

Drink further documents the contribution of alcohol to the birth and growth of the United States, taking in the War of Independence, the Pennsylvania Whiskey revolt, the slave trade, and the failed experiment of national Prohibition. Finally, it provides a history of the world's most famous drinks-and the world's most famous drinkers. Packed with trivia and colorful characters, Drink amounts to an intoxicating history of the world. 041b061a72


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