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Dimitrie Cantemir Taqsim Makam Turkish Classical Music 2021

A tradition of music that reached its golden age around the early 18th century, Ottoman music traces its roots back to the music of the Hellenic and Persianate world, a distinctive feature of which is the usage of a modal melodic system. This system, alternatively called makam, dastgah or echos, are a large and varied system of melodic material, defining both scales and melodic contour. In Ottoman music alone, more than 600 makams have been used so far, and out of these, at least 120 makams are in common use and formally defined.[1] Rhythmically, Ottoman music uses the zaman and usûl systems, which determine time signatures and accents respectively. A wide variety of instruments has been used in Ottoman music, which include the turkish tanbur (lute), ney (end-blown reed flute), klasik kemençe (lyra), keman (violin), kanun (zither), and others.

Dimitrie Cantemir Taqsim Makam Turkish classical music

However, the classical age is not exclusively a period of decline for Ottoman classical music, as the first signs of a multicultural musical tradition started to appear in the Ottoman Empire. Cristaldi emphasizes that this era marked the beginning of contacts between Persian and Byzantine traditions, which would later fuse to form a recognizably Ottoman style.[13] Synagogal chants were also adapted to the makam system during this era, fueling what would later become the "new synthesis" of Ottoman music. Israel ben Moses Najara, who is sometimes called "the father of Ottoman-Jewish music", and Shlomo Mazal Tov, compiler of the Sefer shirim u-zemirot ve tishbahot (The book of songs, 17 hymns and songs of praise), were very influential in this process, as they, along with many other non-Muslim musicians, started to attend Mevlevi ceremonies in which religious music was played; this fusion would be the driving force behind 17th century Ottoman music.[12][14][15]

One of the most notable composers of "new synthesis" Ottoman classical music is Kasımpaşalı Osman Effendi, whose focus, along with his students, was on reviving the tradition of complex rhythmic cycles, which he had correctly identified as lost, unlike many court musicologists of his time.[10] These new rhythmic cycles were later used by his student Hafız Post to fit the more folkloric, popular poetry form murabba, bridging the gap between older Persian classical works and newer Anatolian ones, created after the decline of Persian music in the 16th century.[10] Meanwhile, other students of Osman Effendi, such as Mustafa Itri, sought out the conventions of Byzantine music, incorporating the concepts of the Orthodox tradition into his works as well as his treatises. This significantly bolstered the exchange between Byzantine and Ottoman music, and the resulting era featured a number of Greek composers, most notably Peter Peloponnesios, Hanende Zacharia and Tanburi Angeli.[10][13] Increasingly, modal structures between the two traditions began to converge as well, as manuscripts often recorded both echoi and makams of composed pieces. A piece during this time might have been recorded as "Segâh makam, usûl muhammes, echos IV legetos", noting similarities and equivalences between the two systems.[16]

While Ottoman music does have characteristics in common with Western classical music, to which it is often compared, Ottoman music theory is largely dependent on two systems separate from that of common practice Western tradition, a system of modal melodic material called makam, and a system of rhythmic cycles called usûl.[20] The theoretical basis of this "melodic material" is a tuning system that divides the octave into 53 tones or perdes, and prescribes heterophonic "pathways" of melodic development, called seyir, to create pieces.[23] If said melodic material is used in its "purest" form, the resulting composition is called a taksim, or a locally-rhythmic improvisational piece. Composed pieces, however, also utilize usûl, a complex system of meters and accents, which structure the piece.[20]

Peşrevs are performed after the introductory taksim in a classical fasıl. Peşrevs are rhythmically complex, featuring protracted usuls that do not translate well into Western staff notation.[20] They are typically made up of four hânes and one mülazime, which repeats after every hâne,[24] and its melodic structure relies on alternating between neighboring makams in these hânes.[11] Peşrevs, in addition to serving as preludes for long-form performances, also have a very comprehensive history in their usage as military marches, and therefore, has had a considerable influence on Western classical music.[11] Melodically complex peşrevs with numerous modal modulations are called Fihrist peşrevs, or Küll-i Külliyat.[11]

3. Turkish Tetrachords: Following the example of the ancient Greeks, Turkish makams are the combination of two four-note groupings called tetrachords. Through the use of accidentals, a series of tetrachords, each with a different characteristic (and name) can be created. Unlike the West, the dominant (D) will sometimes be located within the tetrachord itself. The following examples are the basic tetrachords (and pentachords) of Turkish classical music:

4. Turkish Makams: By joining tetrachords and pentachords, complete scales and modes are created. There are thousands of musical examples of works written using hundreds of different makams in the literature of Turkish classical music. Makam names vary according to pitches used as well as general direction of the melodic flow. Thus makams are really rules of composition and not just scales. Here are just a few examples:Note: Turkish folk music, while not as highly refined or theoretical as Turkish classical music, has many examples of songs written in different makams including Hicaz, Huseyni and Ussak. 041b061a72


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